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Traditional thinking is that compact spectrometers do not offer the sensitivity or speed needed to compete with benchtop fluorimeters for many fluorescence measurements. We explain how limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) are defined and measured, and challenge that preconception by demonstrating picomolar LOD for fluorescein with a compact, cost-effective spectrometer capable of capturing 50 ms scans with ease.
Measuring optical signals in the femtowatt (10-15) to nanowatt (10-9) range can be a daunting task. In order to achieve significant improvements in noise rejection we need to turn to a lock-in amplifier, which can improve noise rejection by 3 orders of magnitude or more.
Lidar could become an important part of autonomous driving and potentially a huge market opportunity for laser and detector manufacturers, as Greg Blackman discovers at the Image Sensors conference in London